Thursday, February 12, 2009

Tranquillizers (anxiolytics, ataractics): all of them! (Part1)

Tranquilizers - substances selectively eliminate emotional instability, tension, anxiety, fear, with neurotic disorders. The name comes from the Latin word tranquillium - quiet, anxius - anxious, smitten with fear. The term emerged in 1955.
Divided tranquilizers to "strong" and "daily". Strong tranquilizers (Valium, Diazepam, Alprazolam, Xanax, Clonazepam, Oxazepam, Seresta, Phenazepam, Nitrazepam ... and others) have the most pronounced anxiolytic and sedative effects, a large breadth of therapeutic action, in general, much oppressed by the central nervous system. Daily (Hydazepam, Tofizopam, Mezapam) have a selective effect of stress-tread, do not cause significant sedation, have a minimal negative effect on the mental and physical performance. They concede the effectiveness of drugs for the first group and apply priemuschestvenno on an outpatient basis.
Currently benzodiazepine derivatives occupy a key position among the tranquilizers. Benzodiazepines have a specific mechanism of action, interacting with benzodiazepines sites of GABA-ergic neurons. Since GABA-ergic synapses morphologically homogeneous and distributed in different departments of central nervous system, benzodiazepines can influence most of the functional entities of the brain. It is believed that the effect of tranquilizers on benzodiazepines receptors leads to increased activity in close association with GABA-ergic systems of oppression, followed by adrenergic and cholinergic systems, changing the activity of noradrenaline and serotonin, play an important role in the regulation of sleep, stress reactions, paroxysmal states.
Tranquilizers have a set of specific features unique to this group of substances. The spectrum of pharmacological activity of tranquilizers include:
-anxiolytic action;
-sedative effect;
-lack of effectiveness in psychosis;
-activating effect;
-soporific effect;
-muscle relaxation;
-anticonvulsant action;
-amnestic action;
Some used tranquilizers: (name) \ (average daily dose) \ (half-life period)
Alprazolam, Xanax \ 1-2 mg per os \ 10-12 h
Bromazepam \ 4-6 mg per os \ 8-20 h
Chlordiazepoxide \ 30-50 mg per os \ 5-30 h
Clonazepam \ 4-6 mg per os \ 20-60 h
Diazepam, Valium \ 14-45 mg per os \ 15-48 h
Oxazepam, Seresta \ 30-50 mg per os \ 8-10 h
Phenazepam \ 2-3 mg per os \ 20-30 h
Nitrazepam \ 5-10 mg per os \ 18-25 h
Temazepam \ 40-50 mg per os \ 5-15 h
Flunitrazepam, Rohipnol \ 1-2 mg per os \ 20-30 h
/ be continued

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